چالش‌های به‌نظم کشیدن نانوفناوری و ضرورت حرکت به سوی تنظیم‌گری جهانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه مازندران

2 کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه مازندران

10.22034/law.2021.46085.2907

چکیده

اگرچه هدف فناوری‌ها آسان‌تر کردن زندگی بشر و افزایش رفاه است، اما هر فناوری جدیدی مسائلی را به‌همراه دارد که می‌تواند اثار مخرب کوتاه‌مدت یا دراز‌مدت بر حیات انسان و دیگر موجودات داشته باشد. هر قدر این آثار و خطرها بیشتر و گسترده‌تر باشد لزوم به‌نظم کشیدن آن فناوری از جانب حقوق بین‌الملل و به‌عنوان پاسخی به یک نگرانی مشترک جهانی ملموس‌تر خواهد بود. فناوری نانو به‌عنوان یک فناوری که بشر را قادر به دست‌کاری و مهندسی مواد در ابعاد مولکولی و زیرمولکولی کرده، ازجمله مهم‌ترین فناوری‌های مفید اما توأم با خطرهای شناخته‌شده و ناشناختۀ فراوان است که باید قواعد حقوقی آنها را به‌نظم بکشد. پژوهش حاضر در پی پاسخ به این پرسش اساسی است که چرا به‌رغم پیشرفت سریع و سرعت خیره‌کنندۀ انتقال نانوفناوری از تحقیقات آزمایشگاهی به خطوط تولید و تجاری‌سازی محصولات مرتبط با آن، روند تنظیم‌گری این فناوری در حقوق بین‌الملل با چالش مواجه شده است و آیا راه‌حلی برای غلبه بر این چالش وجود دارد؟ یافتۀ اصلی مقاله این است که با توجه به جهانی بودن خطرهای نانومواد و نیز دانش ناکافی بشر دربارۀ خواص بدیع آنها از یک سو و کافی نبودن معاهدات موجود جهت پوشش نانومواد از سوی دیگر، تنظیم‌گری این فناوری باید با هدف مدیریت خطر و اتخاذ رویکرد احتیاطی و با استفاده از الگوی تنظیم‌گری جهانی یعنی با مشارکت همۀ بازیگران اعم از دولتی و غیردولتی انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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